Iso 5167 2 Orifice Plates Pdf Free
Orifice plates are most commonly used to measure flow rates in pipes, when the fluid is single-phase (rather than being a mixture of gases and liquids, or of liquids and solids) and well-mixed, the flow is continuous rather than pulsating, the fluid occupies the entire pipe (precluding silt or trapped gas), the flow profile is even and well-developed and the fluid and flow rate meet certain other conditions. Under these circumstances and when the orifice plate is constructed and installed according to appropriate standards, the flow rate can easily be determined using published formulae based on substantial research and published in industry, national and international standards.
Iso 5167 2 Orifice Plates Pdf Free
Plates are commonly made with sharp-edged circular orifices and installed concentric with the pipe and with pressure tappings at one of three standard pairs of distances upstream and downstream of the plate; these types are covered by ISO 5167 and other major standards. There are many other possibilities. The edges may be rounded or conical, the plate may have an orifice the same size as the pipe except for a segment at top or bottom which is obstructed, the orifice may be installed eccentric to the pipe, and the pressure tappings may be at other positions. Variations on these possibilities are covered in various standards and handbooks. Each combination gives rise to different coefficients of discharge which can be predicted so long as various conditions are met, conditions which differ from one type to another.
Standards and handbooks are mainly concerned with sharp-edged thin plates. In these, the leading edge is sharp and free of burrs and the cylindrical section of the orifice is short, either because the entire plate is thin or because the downstream edge of the plate is bevelled. Exceptions include the quarter-circle or quadrant-edge orifice, which has a fully rounded leading edge and no cylindrical section, and the conical inlet or conical entrance plate which has a bevelled leading edge and a very short cylindrical section. The orifices are normally concentric with the pipe (the eccentric orifice is a specific exception) and circular (except in the specific case of the segmental or chord orifice, in which the plate obstructs just a segment of the pipe). Standards and handbooks stipulate that the upstream surface of the plate is particularly flat and smooth. Sometimes a small drain or vent hole is drilled through the plate where it meets the pipe, to allow condensate or gas bubbles to pass along the pipe.
Standards and handbooks stipulate a well-developed flow profile; velocities will be lower at the pipe wall than in the centre but not eccentric or jetting. Similarly the flow downstream of the plate must be unobstructed, otherwise the downstream pressure will be affected. To achieve this, the pipe must be acceptably circular, smooth and straight for stipulated distances. Sometimes when it is impossible to provide enough straight pipe, flow conditioners such as tube bundles or plates with multiple holes are inserted into the pipe to straighten and develop the flow profile, but even these require a further length of straight pipe before the orifice itself. Some standards and handbooks also provide for flows from or into large spaces rather than pipes, stipulating that the region before or after the plate is free of obstruction and abnormalities in the flow.
An orifice only works well when supplied with a fully developed flow profile. This is achieved by a long upstream length (20 to 40 pipe diameters, depending on Reynolds number) or the use of a flow conditioner. Orifice plates are small and inexpensive but do not recover the pressure drop as well as a venturi, nozzle, or venturi-nozzle does. Venturis also require much less straight pipe upstream. A venturi meter is more efficient, but usually more expensive and less accurate (unless calibrated in a laboratory) than an orifice plate.
For smaller values of β (such as restriction plates with β less than 0.25 and discharge from tanks), if the fluid is compressible, the rate of flow depends on whether the flow has become choked. If it is, then the flow may be calculated as shown at choked flow (although the flow of real gases through thin-plate orifices never becomes fully choked[a] By using a mechanical energy balance, compressible fluid flow in un-choked conditions may be calculated as:
Flow rates through an orifice plate can be calculated without specifically calibrating the individual flowmeter so long as the construction and installation of the device complies with the stipulations of the relevant standard or handbook. The calculation takes account of the fluid and fluid conditions, the pipe size, the orifice size and the measured differential pressure; it also takes account of the coefficient of discharge of the orifice plate, which depends upon the orifice type and the positions of the pressure tappings. With local pressure tappings (corner, flange and D+D/2), sharp-edged orifices have coefficients around 0.6 to 0.63, while the coefficients for conical entrance plates are in the range 0.73 to 0.734 and for quarter-circle plates 0.77 to 0.85. The coefficients of sharp-edged orifices vary more with fluids and flow rates than the coefficients of conical-entrance and quarter-circle plates, especially at low flows and high viscosities.
The equations provided in American and European national and industry standards and the various coefficients used to differ from each other even to the extent of using different combinations of correction factors, but many are now closely aligned and give identical results; in particular, they use the same Reader-Harris/Gallagher (1998) equation for the coefficient of discharge for sharp-edged orifice plates. The equations below largely follow the notation of the international standard ISO 5167 and use SI units.
The overall pressure loss caused by an orifice plate is less than the differential pressure measured across tappings near the plate. For sharp-edged plates such as corner, flange or D and D/2 tappings, it can be approximated by the equation
Abstract:The paper presents the results of the experimental and numerical analysis of a six-hole orifice flow meter. The experiments were performed on humid air in a 100 mm diameter duct. The aim of this research was to investigate the mass flow and pressure drop dependency in an orifice of a predetermined shape and to compare the results obtained with computational formulas recommended in the ISO 5167-2 standard for a single-hole orifice flow meter. The experiments and calculations were performed on several multi-hole orifice geometries with different contraction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The pressure was probed immediately upstream and downstream of the orifice. The flow coefficient determined for the six-hole orifice flow meter investigated was compared with the flow coefficient of conventional single-hole orifice with the same contraction coefficient. The results from computational formulas for single-hole orifice from ISO 5167 are also included in the paper. During some experiments, an obstacle has been introduced in the duct at variable distance upstream from the orifice. The effect of the thus generated velocity field disturbance on the measured pressure drop was then investigated. Numerical simulation of the flow with the presence of the obstacle was also performed and compared with experimental data.Keywords: multi-hole orifice; flow measurement; numerical simulation; pressure drop
A few of the most important points from ISO 5167 are discussed below:Pressure tappings - Small bore pipes (referred to as impulse lines) connect the upstream and downstream pressure tappings of the orifice plate to a Differential Pressure or DP cell.The positioning of the pressure tappings can be varied. The most common locations are:
Corner tappings - These are generally used on smaller orifice plates where space restrictions mean flanged tappings are difficult to manufacture. Usually on pipe diameters including or below DN50.From the DP cell, the information may be fed to a flow indicator, or to a flow computer along with temperature and/or pressure data, to provide density compensation.Pipework - There is a requirement for a minimum of five straight pipe diameters downstream of the orifice plate, to reduce the effects of disturbance caused by the pipework.The amount of straight pipework required upstream of the orifice plate is, however, affected by a number of factors including:
The TVA flowmeter operates on the well established spring loaded variable area (SLVA) principle, where the area of an annular orifice is continuously varied by a precision shaped moving cone.This cone is free to move axially against the resistance of a spring.However, unlike other SLVA flowmeters, the TVA does not rely on the measurement of differential pressure drop across the flowmeter to calculate flow, measuring instead the force caused by the deflection of the cone via a series of extremely high quality strain gauges. The higher the flow of steam the greater the force. This removes the need for expensive differential pressure transmitters, reducing installation costs and potential problems (Figure 4.3.15).The TVA has an internal temperature sensor, which provides full density compensation for saturated steam applications.